I do a lot of training with folks and the hardest and yet most difficult thing to work with is those that come in and you try to explain dog behavior and how dogs learn, but they have already made their mind or decision up. They want to train that dog like you drop your car off. I want x y or z done and this is how you do it. Never mind they come to you for training and how to do things. So when you explain to that frightened or low confidence puppy owner that they are not helping things by the way they are reinforcing behavior. Most dont want to hear that. Why because they want to think that dog or puppy thinks like they do. When in reality—- SHOCKER- NO THEY DON’T. They are dogs and as such think and read behavior like an animal. So while you may be trying to comfort that dog while at the vets office and they are nervous, or in a training class, what is really happening is your reinforcing that behavior. Your creating a dog that has confidence issues in new spaces! In dog language they are interpreting your tone and behavior. That’s what dogs do with each other they communicate by body language and verbal tones. They again are not people and do not interpret things the way we do or think/ rationalize things the way we do! Here is a great article on this.